The elderly should have a correct understanding of aging, establish a positive outlook on aging, acquire health knowledge and skills through scientific and authoritative channels, and carefully select health care products and household medical devices. At the same time, it is necessary to continuously strengthen self-care awareness, learn self-care knowledge, master self-management skills, early detection and standard treatment of diseases, which are of great significance to improving the quality of life of the elderly and reducing the care burden of families and society.
● reasonable diet, balanced nutrition. The diet of the elderly should be regular and quantitative, and the daily food varieties should include grains, miscellaneous beans and potatoes (thick and thin), animal foods, vegetables, fruits, milk and dairy products, and nuts, etc., control cooking oil and salt intake. It is recommended that the elderly have three meals of two o’clock, and the energy allocation for three meals a day is about 30% for breakfast, about 40% for lunch, and about 30% for dinner, with snacks or fruits in the morning and afternoon.
● Moderate exercise, step by step. It is best for the elderly to choose mild to moderate sports according to their own conditions and hobbies, such as brisk walking, jogging, swimming, dancing, Tai Chi, etc. The best exercise time is 10-11 am and 3-5 pm, and each exercise time is 30-60 minutes.
● Quit smoking early and limit alcohol intake. The sooner you quit smoking, the better. If you drink alcohol, you should limit it, avoid drinking strong alcohol above 45 degrees, and avoid alcoholism.
● Get a good night’s sleep. It is best to take a lunch break of about 1 hour every day. If you have difficulty falling asleep for a long time or have severe snoring and apnea, you should seek medical attention in time.
●Regular self-monitoring of blood pressure. Before the test, you should rest for 5 minutes to avoid emotional agitation, fatigue, smoking, and holding back urine. Each measurement was performed twice, with an interval of 1 minute, and the average value of the two measurements was taken. Hypertensive patients should measure their blood pressure at least 3 times a day (morning, noon, and evening). Be alert to the morning blood pressure phenomenon to prevent myocardial infarction and stroke; at the same time, low blood pressure should be avoided, especially due to improper medication.
●Monitor blood sugar regularly. The elderly should monitor blood glucose every 1 to 2 months, not only fasting blood glucose, but also 2-hour postprandial blood glucose. When blood sugar is stable in diabetic patients, monitor blood sugar at least 1 or 2 times a week.
●Prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The elderly should maintain a healthy lifestyle and control the risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Such as controlling excessive intake of fat and salt, moderate exercise, good sleep, regular physical examination, early detection of coronary heart disease and early symptoms of stroke, and timely treatment.
●Pay attention to the early symptoms of stroke and seek medical attention as soon as possible. Once it is found that the elderly suddenly have symptoms such as weakness or numbness on one side of the face or limbs, hemianopia, poor language, dizziness with nausea, vomiting, diplopia, etc., they must call “120” and urgently send them to a qualified hospital for treatment.
● Pay attention to the decline of audio-visual functions. Avoid picking ears casually; drink less strong tea and coffee; strictly control the indications for the use of ototoxic drugs (such as gentamicin, streptomycin, etc.); strive for a relatively quiet living environment. Check your eyesight regularly and seek medical attention in a timely manner if vision loss is found.
● Pay attention to oral health care. Rinse your mouth after meals, brush your teeth in the morning and evening, and use dental floss or toothpicks reasonably; perform oral examinations every six months to repair carious holes in time; fill in missing teeth in time to restore chewing function as soon as possible.
● Prevent falls. More than 90% of fractures in the elderly are caused by falls. You should exercise moderately, wear appropriate glasses to improve your eyesight, avoid going out alone and in crowded environments, place items indoors regularly, increase lighting, and keep the floor dry and flat.
●Prevention of bone and joint diseases and prevention of osteoporosis. Pay attention to keeping the knee joint warm, avoid excessive physical exercise, go down stairs as little as possible, and control your weight to reduce the pressure on the lower extremity joints. Increase sun exposure. Promote a balanced diet rich in calcium, low in salt, and moderate protein, and improve bone strength through moderate exercise such as walking or running.
●Prevention of stress urinary incontinence. Pay attention to changing behaviors and living habits that increase abdominal pressure, such as long-term standing, squatting, weight-bearing, long-term chronic cough, constipation, etc.
●Prevent the occurrence and development of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease mostly begins after the age of 65, and is mainly manifested by persistent and progressive memory, language, visuospatial disturbances, and personality changes. Once the elderly have early symptoms such as significant memory loss and prominent amnesia of recent events, they should be diagnosed as soon as possible to prevent or delay the occurrence and development of Alzheimer’s disease.
● rational drug use. Medication needs to strictly abide by the doctor’s advice, master the indications and contraindications, and avoid repeated medication and multiple medication. Do not abuse antibiotics, sedatives, anesthetics, anti-inflammatory painkillers, anti-arrhythmic drugs, cardiotonic drugs, etc. It is not easy to use “secret recipes”, “home remedies”, “prescriptions”, “new medicines”, “foreign medicines”, etc.
●Regular physical examination. The elderly actively participate in the census organized by the government and large hospitals, and attach great importance to the early warning signs of cancer such as abnormal masses, intestinal bleeding, and weight loss. Early detection and early intervention of chronic diseases, and effective intervention measures to reduce the risk of disease. Keep complete medical records.
● Carry a health emergency card with you when you go out. The card shall indicate basic information such as name, home address, work unit, and family contact information, which diseases you have, what may happen, and the key points of simple first aid on the spot. If necessary, indicate the request to contact the vehicle, escort the hospital, etc. .