Healthy Eating｜Learn to eat according to the fifth edition of “Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2022)”.
Recently, the “Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2022)” was released, and the relationship between diet and health has once again sparked heated discussions.
The essence of the dietary guidelines is directly reflected in the pagoda of Chinese residents’ balanced diet. Compared with the 2016 version, the new version of the pagoda may seem to be only minor changes, but these changes are important. If the recommended total daily salt intake is reduced from no more than 6 grams to 5 grams, what impact will this 1 gram change bring? Grains and potatoes are more subdivided, and whole grain intake is emphasized. What does this mean? We ask the experts to analyze them one by one for everyone.
At the same time, the fifth edition of the Dietary Guidelines adds dietary guidelines for the elderly and proposes an oriental healthy dietary pattern.
What are the changes in the fifth edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2022) compared with the previous editions? How to eat reasonably?
The reporter interviewed experts such as Zheng Peifen, director of the Nutrition Department of Zhejiang Hospital, and Yu Xiao, director of the Nutrition Department of Zhejiang Xinhua Hospital, for a specific analysis.
Cultivate light taste to reduce salt
The 2022 version of the Diet Pagoda has raised the “salt limit” target. A large number of studies have shown that long-term high-salt diet and excessive sodium intake will reduce the body’s ability to absorb calcium and increase the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, cerebral hemorrhage, kidney disease and other diseases.
At present, the salt intake of Chinese residents is generally too high. Only about 20% of the people in the country have a daily salt intake of no more than 5 grams, and most people have an average daily intake of 9-11 grams. Said to have to reduce the amount of salt.
How much salt should the human body consume per day? The new version of the “Guide” changes the salt from less than 6 grams in the previous version to less than 5 grams. Yang Xiaoguang, vice chairman of the Chinese Nutrition Society and deputy director of the Dietary Guidelines Revision Expert Committee, said that when the previous version was formulated, considering that the original salt intake was very high, it was difficult to reach the 5 grams recommended by the World Health Organization. The stage target for the population is 6 grams. At present, both scientific evidence and Healthy China have clearly put forward the goal of 5 grams of salt. This revision adjusts the intake of salt to this goal, which is consistent with the previous goal of preventing cardiovascular disease.
How much is 5 grams of salt? Under normal circumstances, if the rubber pad is removed from the cap of an ordinary beer bottle, the salt that fills a bottle cap is about 6 grams. If the rubber pad is not removed, it is not so full, about 5 grams.
“Limiting salt is an attitude, not accurate to 5 grams. This is to tell everyone that a low-salt diet is very important.” Zheng Peifen said, because there are a lot of “invisible salt” in life, such as sauced tofu, fermented bean curd, pickles, soy sauce, etc. They are all foods high in salt, and even milk tea has salt in it.
The essence of salt reduction is to make the taste lighter, eat less processed food, pay attention to the taste of the food itself, and gradually reduce the use of salt every day.
The decreased sensitivity of taste buds to salt in the elderly can also lead to higher salt intake. It is recommended to try the step-by-step salt restriction method proposed by the China Hypertension League, that is, first reduce the original salt intake by 1/3, and then gradually transition to the ideal salt intake level of 5 grams per day. You can also learn the popular method of “adding salt to meals”, which is popular among residents of some western countries. Don’t add salt when cooking, and add salt after you put it on the table, so that the salty taste is not reduced, but it can be reduced by 1/2. to 2/3 the amount of salt used.
Yang Yuexin, chairman of the Chinese Nutrition Society and director of the Expert Committee on Revision of Dietary Guidelines, put forward three suggestions. First, never eat too much. There is a lot more sodium in a full meal. There are other seasonings besides salt. Food itself contains sodium, so it should be considered as a whole. Second, if there are two or three people in the family, one dish should not exceed 3 grams of salt. How to fry a dish with less than 3 grams of salt requires learning. Third, eat less meat products. , Not only cured meat, but all packaged meat products contain more salt. When cooking at home, it is easy to add more salt to meat dishes.
It is not difficult to increase the amount of milk
Milk and dairy products contain more than 20 kinds of nutrients such as protein, fat, calcium, iron, and vitamin B2, which almost contain all the nutrients needed by the human body. The major change in the new version of the “Guidelines” is that the recommended intake of milk and dairy products has been adjusted from 300 grams per day to 300 grams -500 grams per day.
The reason for increasing the intake of dairy products is not only to ensure high-quality protein intake, but also because milk is the preferred food for calcium supplementation.
It is not too difficult to achieve a daily intake of 300ml of milk and dairy products. Not only liquid milk, but also yogurt, cheese, etc. For example, drink a glass of milk (200-250ml) for breakfast and add a glass of yogurt (100-125ml) for lunch.
As for how to convert the amount, it can be converted with the same amount of protein according to different products. For example, 100 grams of milk can be converted into about 10 grams of cheese, 12.5 grams of milk powder, and about the same amount of yogurt. In addition, for people who want to control weight or dyslipidemia, if they want to drink 500 ml of milk, they can choose low-fat milk or skim milk to reduce fat intake.
The purpose of consuming dairy products is to supplement protein and calcium. Some people do not like to drink milk and can supplement it in other ways according to personal preference. For example, tofu, dried tofu, and shredded tofu can be eaten in rotation every week. For example, tofu brain and soy milk can be arranged for breakfast, and tofu and shredded tofu (dried) can be used for lunch and dinner, which not only changes the taste, but also meets nutritional needs. Home-soaked soybeans can also be cooked with rice to improve protein utilization. After soy products are fermented, the protein is partially decomposed, which is easy to digest and absorb.